“Chicago Time” by S. M. O’Connor

Daylight Saving Time implementation resumes in (most of) the U.S.A. at 2:00 a.m. on Sunday, March 11, 2018.  Today seemed an appropriate day to post this adaptation of a paper I presented about the adoption of, and resistance to, Standard Time and Daylight Saving Time in Chicagoland at the 9th Annual Conference on Illinois History.[1]

“I see that Time’s the king of men; he’s both their parent, and he is their grave, and gives them what he will.” – William Shakespeare, Pericles, Act II, Scene 3

By the end of the 19th Century, Greenwich Mean Time was so emblematic of British world-power that in Joseph Conrad’s novel The Secret Agent, published in 1907, the plot involved Verloc, an agent provocateur working in London simultaneously for the British and Russian Empires, attempting to blow up the Royal Greenwich Observatory on behalf of a Russian espionage service in order to defame the global anarchist movement.  Timekeepers have existed since at least the time of the Third Intermediate Period of Egyptian history, but clock consciousness as such did not exist before its emergence in 12th century Europe, after which it spread gradually until it became the predominant method of keeping time in the West during the 19th Century.

This essay compares resistance to the implementation of Standard Time with resistance to the implementation of Daylight Saving Time (D.S.T.) in Chicagoland between 1883 and 1936.  Under Standard Time, as originally conceived, clocks were supposed to strike the hour simultaneously with the Mean Solar Standard Clock at the Royal Greenwich Observatory in England.[2]

The technological and logistical preconditions for the standardization of time came into place as a result of four things.  First, the British Royal Navy paid for the erection of time-balls (like the one used on New Year’s Eve in New York City’s Times Square) and time guns in major ports allowing navigators to synchronize their chronometers with time in their home ports so they would be able to establish longitude at sea.  Second, railroads needed to rationalize their time schedules, which were based on the time regimes of the cities where their services either started or ended, conflicting with the time regimes of the other towns they served, all of these time regimes being based on local mean time or apparent solar time.  Third, Sir George Airy (1801-92), 7th Astronomer Royal, saw a master clock control slave clocks with electric impulses at the Great Exposition of 1851.[3]  This inspired him to get the Royal Navy to pay for a system to send time signals from the Royal Greenwich Observatory, which already had a time ball apparatus for the benefit of the nearby naval academy and civilian Thames River traffic, to the rest of the United Kingdom.   Fourth, observatories and telegraph companies saw an opportunity to sell time signals to the railroads, to jewelers selling watches, and city governments with public clocks.

Standardization first appeared in the guise of Railroad Time, but governments, bowing to the needs of industry and commerce, adopted Railroad Time and then took control of its administration over a period of decades.  Standard Time began in England in 1847, was adopted simultaneously by the United States and Canada in 1883, and then was adopted by much of the rest of the world in 1884.  However, just as the English central government did not officially adopt Standard Time until 1880, the federal government of the United States did not do so until 1918.

Accounts of opposition to Standard Time have been obscured by layers of mythology about where opposition took place and what motives the opponents to Standard Time had.  The first layer of mythology surrounding resistance to the implementation of Standard Time in Anglo-North America seemed to arise from the denigration of those who resisted implementation of new time regimes as reactionary halfwits rather than people with valid concerns.  A second layer of mythology developed that opposition was strong in Chicago, which was, in some respects, the birthplace of Standard Time.  In reality, there was hardly any resistance there.   Strong resistance did occur in areas on or near the boundaries between time zones like Detroit, Savannah, and Bangor.  Additionally, resistance came from unexpected sources like the railroads themselves.

In direct contrast to mythologized accounts of Standard Time resistance in Chicago, there was much conflict in Chicago and environs over Daylight Saving Time (D.S.T.), as there has been conflict over D.S.T. throughout the world since William Willet introduced D.S.T. in his 1907 pamphlet “The Waste of Daylight,” in which he argued that people would have more leisure time and society would save much fuel by setting clocks two hours forward during summer.[4]  Willet petitioned both Parliament and Congress to adopt his proposal, but neither did so until World War I made fuel conservation critical.[5]  An examination of contemporary accounts of Chicago’s adoption of its DST scheme during the interwar years, two attempts by members of the Illinois General Assembly to compel Chicago to cease DST observance, and Chicago’s ill-advised attempt to move to Eastern Standard Time in 1936 reveals that the Chicago Association of Commerce (CAC) was one of the earliest and most powerful advocates of DST, not only in the city, but in the United States as a whole.

In very large countries or empires with a multitude of contiguous provinces, such as Canada, the U.S.A., and Russia, if the central governments were to adopt Standard Time regimes, distant cities on the periphery would experience differences not of minutes but of hours between Standard and Local Time.[6]  To compensate for this, in 1869 Professor Charles F. Dowd, Principal of Temple Grove Ladies’ Seminary in Saratoga Springs, New York, “suggested to a New York convention of railroad managers a plan to divide North America into four ‘time belts’ each fifteen degrees of longitude, or one hour, wide” and in 1876 Sir Sandford Fleming, engineer-in-chief of the Canadian Pacific Railway, went still further in asserting the entire world should be divided into twenty-four such time zones.[7]

Selling Time in Chicago before the Great Fire

      In the decades leading up to the introduction of Standard Time in the U.S.A., several astronomical observatories began selling time signals to railroads and other interested parties.  In Chicago, this was done by the Dearborn Observatory, now at Northwestern University, but founded by a group of civic-minded businessmen called the Chicago Astronomical Society (C.A.S.) on the grounds of the first University of Chicago.[8]  They hired Harvard astronomer Truman H. Safford (1836-1901), to be director and he began operations in 1866.[9]  Ian R. Bartky, a scientist who has written a number of scholarly articles and books on the history of time standardization, believes that Chicago Board of Trade president John C. Dore was the “J.C. D.” who touched off debate in the pages of the Chicago Daily Tribune and in Chicago’s Common Council in 1869 that ended with Professor Safford assuring the council the Dearborn Observatory could supply the Court House with time signals at a savings over the existing system of paying watchmen wages to strike a bell.[10]

The infrastructure for the Dearborn Observatory to provide the Court House and City Hall with time signals was designed and installed in 1870 and early 1871, but the system ended abruptly with the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Although the Dearborn Observatory was physically unscathed by the Great Chicago Fire in October of 1871, the C.A.S. was practically ruined because member J. Young Scammon’s bank burnt to the ground and his insurance company was bankrupted, leaving him unable to pay for Safford’s salary.[11]  Safford was forced to leave the city, subsequently participating in the United States Coast and Geodesic Survey.[12]

To save the Dearborn Observatory, C.A.S. member Elias Colbert used his position as commercial editor of the Chicago Tribune to write articles and editorials reminding readers of the observatory’s presence in the city, and by 1875 the time signal service was functioning again.[13]  The observatory supplied Chicago Mean Time to railroads and other businesses, including the Chicago Board of Trade and the Elgin National Watch Company, via Western Electric Manufacturing Company and Western Union telegraph wires.[14]

      Standard Time for Anglo-North America

      The institution of Standard Time in the United States and Canada, when it came in 1883, would reap a multitude of rewards for American and Canadian railroads. Given that the vast continental market opened by the railways in the 1870s was beset by the existence of more than two hundred separate local times, and by establishing Standard Time, the railways would be able to greatly reduce if not altogether eliminate the horrific wrecks that resulted from trains colliding due to confusion over time.[15]

The American and Canadian railroads largely ignored these developments, however, until 1883 when Connecticut began to fine railroads that violated a statute of 1881 requiring all trains passing through the state to run on Yale University Observatory’s New York City meridian time and a movement began in Congress to create some kind of Standard Time regime. These twin events prompted William F. Allen, editor of the Travelers’ Official Guide of the Railway and Steam Navigation Lines of the United States & Canada and Secretary concurrently of both the General Time Convention and Southern Railway Time Convention, to take action.[16] He discovered in 1881 that Professor Cleveland Abbe, a civilian scientist in the U.S. Army Signal Service had been attempting to induct Allen into the American Metrological Association for two years in order to secure the railroad industry’s backing of time standardization.[17]  At the General Time Convention held in St. Louis in April of 1883, he demonstrated with two color maps the contrast between the chaos of the forty-nine railroad time zones then in use and the order that would be wrought by having only five times in North America.[18]

The next General Time Convention was held in Chicago’s Grand Pacific Hotel. There, railroad representatives voted on October 11th to endorse Allen’s plan with implementation beginning on Sunday, November 18, 1883, which became known as the Day of Two Noons.[19]  A bronze plaque commemorating this event is on the Bank of America building that sits at the intersection of Jackson and LaSalle in the Chicago Loop where the Grand Pacific Hotel once stood.  A gift from The Midwest Railway Historical Society, it credits Allen, but not Dowd, Sandford, or Abbe.  In October of 2007, WBBM 780, the CBS-owned news radio station in Chicago, marked the 124th anniversary of the historic vote in Chicago.

Astronomers and railroad executives began to lobby politicians at the municipal and state level to adopt Standard Time on the same date, write letters to newspapers encouraging editors to endorse the plan, and draft orders for trainmen explaining how to put Standard Railroad Time into effect.[20]  The U.S. Naval Observatory would telegraph Western Union the precise moment when noon would occur on the 75th Meridian west of Greenwich.  As a result, Western Union could start selling time signals to customers from that point onward in accordance with Standard Time, and Yale Observatory likewise agreed to telegraph customers in Connecticut when noon would occur.[21]

The Daily Inter-Ocean, an upper class Chicago newspaper, presented an article on the change to Standard Time entitled “The Change in Time” that is of interest for several reasons. [22]  Leonard Waldo wrote the article, and while he was certainly an authority on Standard Time, he was hardly a disinterested party.  Waldo was simultaneously director of the time service at Yale University’s Winchester Observatory, manager of the Horological Bureau, which tested and rated watches, and secretary of the Standard Time Company, which sold time signals from Yale.[23] Waldo, who was, more than anyone, responsible for Connecticut’s original time standardization law, which had been the catalyst for Allen convincing the railway industry to impose Standard Railway Time, wrote that the adoption of Standard Time would be a positive good because of the increase in efficiency for the transportation industries, including commercial ships as well as railways, and scientists, but he did anticipate resistance from the writers of almanacs “and people who would like to see absolutely the same time from one end of the country to the other.”[24]

The Chicago Resistance Myth

      The first sign of serious opposition to Standard Time in the United States came with Attorney-General Brewster’s pronouncement that until Congress officially adopted the time regime offices of the federal government could not operate in accordance with the new regime.  The Chicago Resistance Myth that developed was that the city government flatly rejected adoption of Standard Time for a period of up to a month because of virulent protests by the city clerks who feared that they would be cheated out of pay.  The source of the Chicago Resistance Myth would seem to be a short page one New York Times article from the Day of the Two Noons entitled “The New Time in Chicago.”  Ian R. Bartky and Michael O’Malley then perpetuated the myth.  Bartky, who holds a doctorate from Berkeley in low-temperature calorimetry and thermodynamics, has become a popular writer and lecturer on the field of time.  He admits in Selling the True Time that he himself had been guilty of spreading the myth in an essay entitled “Adoption of Standard Time” that was published in Technology & Culture. [25]  O’Malley is a professor of history at George Mason University who wrote in Keeping Watch that “in Chicago confusion reigned for several days.”[26]  The problem with these accounts of how Chicago resisted the institution of Standard Time is that local primary sources do not support them.

The only mention of any resistance in Chicago found by reading three Chicago newspapers, The Daily Inter-Ocean of Chicago, the Chicago Tribune, and the Chicago Daily News, is of four railways, three of which were merely slow to adopt the new time regime, and a handful of jewelers who flatly refused to adopt the regime.  The statement in the Chicago Tribune that “Messrs. Dale, George, and several other jewelers” were described as holdouts proves there was not unanimity amongst all the jewelers of Chicago regarding acceptance of Standard Time, as the New York Times article had indicated. [27]

Notable firstly because it treats an event of national consequence as if it were provincial, the most striking thing about the New York Times article of November 18th is that it may provide the origin of the Chicago Resistance Myth. The Western Electric Company, “which furnishes the time to all the leading jewelers”, the Board of Trade, and the Post Office were cited as accepting the change, but, significantly, City Hall and the Illinois Central Railroad, which controlled “dozens of small roads from Chicago to New Orleans” were listed as holdouts.  The clerks at City Hall were described as being “violently opposed to any change” because they feared that if clocks were slowed by nine minutes, they would be cheated in terms of time.[28]

While there may have been protest on the part of city bureaucrats that went undocumented in the newspapers of Chicago itself, this seems rather unlikely.  The above-mentioned article “Accepting the Reform” which appeared in the Chicago Daily News anticipated imminent acceptance of Standard Time by Mayor Harrison.  Further, the Proceedings of the City Council: City of Chicago Municipal Year 1883-84 clearly state that at the City Council regular Meeting held on Monday, November 19th, the day after the Day of the Two Noons, Mayor Carter C. Harrison introduced a resolution calling for the adoption of Standard Time.

The Post Master of Chicago related to the Tribune that he had been told to use his own discretion in the matter by authorities in Washington.[29]  This would have been important not just because it affected communication, but also because the postal service was the leading source of patronage jobs at the federal government’s disposal at the time.

Although resistance to Standard Time implementation in Chicago was exaggerated, there is some truth to the tale of public resistance. Bitter conflict over the adoption of Standard Time arose in Ohio, Detroit, Bangor, and Savannah.  Waldo foresaw in “the Change in Time” that adoption of Standard Time would create problems for the people of Ohio because in their state Standard Time would be a half hour ahead of Local Time, but while he allowed that this would shorten the “business mornings” and lengthen the “business afternoons” he did not anticipate resistance to Standard Time as a result.

Daylight Saving Time

      As for Daylight Saving Time, Parliament did not adopt real estate developer William Willet’s proposal until Germany, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and Holland had already done so midway through World War I. [30]  Opposition to Daylight Saving Time appeared almost immediately.  The Times reported complaints from munitions workers in Sheffield and elsewhere,[31] and the Northampton city council unanimously passed a resolution declaring the people of Northampton would obey the sun rather than DST.[32] In the U.S., resistance to DST was so great when it was instituted simultaneously with federal adoption of Standard Time in 1918 that Congress repealed the law’s Daylight Saving Time provision in 1919, overriding President Woodrow Wilson’s veto.  The Standard Time Act had been passed in 1918 as a result of lobbying for four years by organizations in Chicago, New York City, and Boston that had banded together.

In 1914, wholesale paper merchant Eugene Underwood Kimbark (1867-1923),[33] had chaired the Chicago Chamber of Commerce’s Special Committee on Change of Time.[34]  The CAC released a report in December of 1914, “A Longer Sunlight Day.”[35]  The authors of the report argued that the adoption of Daylight Saving Time should be at the national level because “local time changes would tend to upset the now satisfactory and well-established standard time, upon which all railroad-timetables and schedules are based.”[36] The Chamber of Commerce of the United States accepted the report in February of 1915, but did not act on it.[37] In 1916, a subcommittee of the Senate’s Interstate Commerce Committee held a hearing at which the sole witness was the Washington correspondent of the Chicago Herald, who spoke about the Chicago Association of Commerce report and the recent adoption of DST by several European polities.[38]

Kimbark was later asked to sit on the U.S. Chamber of Commerce’s National Committee on Daylight Saving with Robert Garland (1862-1949), President of the Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce; Albert Lincoln Filene (1865-1957), partner in William Filene & Sons, and chair of the Boston Chamber of Commerce’s Daylight Saving Plan Special Committee, and Manhattan, where the wealthy borough president Marcus M. Marks (1858-1934) founder of the New York Daylight Saving Committee.[39]

Approximately 1,600 people attended a Daylight Saving Time convention in New York City at the end of January in 1917. Samuel Gompers, President of the American Federation of Labor, and Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924), President of the United States of America, endorsing their project.[40]  Attendees voted to establish a permanent organization to lobby for national DST legislation – the National Daylight Saving Association.[41]

Subsequently, Senator William Calder introduced bill 1854 calling for five time zones for the United States and Alaska territory, using Greenwich as the Prime Meridian; giving authority to the Interstate Commerce Commission (I.C.C.) authority to alter time zone boundaries ‘having regard for the convenience of commerce and the existing junction points and division points of common carriers”; and for a D.S.T. observance period lasting from the last Sunday in April to the last Sunday in September.[42]  Later, 253 representatives voted in favor of the Standard Time Act, 40 were opposed, 6 were “present,” and 134 congressmen avoided voting altogether. [43] The bill was signed by President Wilson on March 11th and went into force on March 31st.

In a letter dated March 27, 1918 written by Chancellor Edward F. Hoban of the Archdiocese of Chicago, archdiocesan priests were ordered to use Standard Time rather than Daylight Saving Time when scheduling Masses for Easter Sunday.[44]   This is an example of institutional acceptance of Standard Time long after it had been introduced and simultaneous resistance to the newly implemented DST.

Under federally-regulated Standard Time, some time zones grew at the expense of others. Effective on January 1, 1919, half of Ohio moved to Eastern Standard Time.[45]  Virginia, Georgia, Florida, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Texas were also bisected between time zones.[46]  Both DST and the ICC’s shifting of some time zone boundaries caused deep resentment amongst America’s farmers and coalminers.[47]  Congress voted to override President Woodrow Wilson’s veto of a bill repealing the DST observance provision of the Standard Time Act.

On June 20, 1919, the Tribune ran an editorial arguing if Daylight Saving Time was onerous to farmers a compromise could be reached between urban-and-rural-dwelling Americans by allowing cities to observe DST.[48]    In October, Alderman Timothy Hogan had a proposed DST ordinance drawn up by Assistant Corporation Counsel Breen.[49]

On October 4, 1919, Alderman Hogan’s proposal met with public opposition from District Attorney C.F. Clyne and Professor Harry J. Cox.[50]  Clyne warned that even if Chicago adopted its own DST program, federal government agencies operating in the city, would continue to run on Central Standard Time.  Professor Cox favored DST on a national basis, but not its re-adoption by individual cities.[51] He continued by asking rhetorically, “Have not peoples of the world tampered with enough things without tampering with nature?  It is the next thing to bolshevism to try to fix the time contrary to the federal system?”[52]

There were several attempts in the Illinois General Assembly to nullify Chicago’s Daylight Saving Time ordinance.   In 1923, Senator Wright, representing DeKalb County, introduced a bill calling for observance of Central Standard Time throughout the year and throughout the state. A Tribune writer said of Wright’s proposal, “It would be amusing because of its utter absurdity if it did not reveal the growth of our mad tendency toward tyrannical legislation to regulate private conduct.”[53]

After Wright’s bill was passed in the state senate, Alderman Hogan, sponsor of the Chicago’s DST law, announced he would ask his colleagues for unanimous support of a resolution protesting the Wright bill and calling on Governor Len Small (1862-1936)  to veto the law if it passed in the lower house.[54]  Mayor Dever (1862-1929) also condemned the bill, recalling Chicago’s Daylight Saving Time law had been approved by residents through a referendum.[55]

Alderman Hogan was quoted as saying, “When the Chicago ordinance was in committee, the movie men were persistent in their opposition to it.  After its passage, their fight continued.”[56]  Ms. Genevieve Forbes quoted Bernard Balaban of Balaban & Katz Theaters as explaining the rationale for movie theater owner opposition to DST because “People go to the movies by the sun, as it goes down, but they usually leave the theater by the clock.”  She related that according to Mr. Balaban this problem did not apply to Chicago Loop theaters, where patrons were waiting for seats at all hours of the day, but in neighborhood theaters.[57]

Wright himself was quoted in the Tribune as saying, “After I introduced the bill a theater man in my town urged me to push it, saying the movie men were opposed to daylight saving.  The bill was intended as a personal protest and more or less of a joke originally, but the letters and telegrams I received later convinced me I had hit on something for which there was a demand.”[58]  The fact this Tribune article “Started as a Joke” ran below the second part of the first article on the Wright bill by Genevieve Forbes, “City Girds for Battle to Keep Extra Daylight,” with a subtitle “Only Neighborhood Film theaters Raise Wail” suggests Tribune editors were heavily implying Wright’s bill was the result of a conspiracy by the motion picture industry rather than complaints by farmers north, west, or south of Chicago or politicians in Springfield seeking uniformity.

Making Wright out as a monster out to oppress Chicago’s laboring masses, George W. Rossetter, chairman of the Chicago Association of Commerce’s daylight saving committee, was also quoted in the Tribune as saying, “Of course, the chief beneficiaries of daylight saving are the hundreds of thousands of employees in our stores, offices, and factories.  They have an extra hour of light for recreation.  It seems remarkable that any one should advocate a law to deprive them of this privilege.” [59]

A petition from the nineteen-member Amateur Athletic Federation implored the state government “to consider ‘the social rather than the selfish, economic aspects of daylight saving.”[60]  Four Kiwanis clubs in Chicago also “adopted resolutions indorsing daylight saving” and forwarded copies to Governor Len Small.[61]

After hearing testimony in mid-June from G. W. Rossetter of the Chicago Association of Commerce’s daylight saving committee, and two supporters of Wright’s bill, Clarence W. Cleveland of the “milk producers association” and Prairie Farmer editor C.V. Gregory, the house judiciary committee voted sixteen to twelve against the bill.[62]  In 1925, a similar bill to Wright’s was introduced by Senator William J. Sneed from Williamson County, and was said to be popular in both chambers of the Illinois General Assembly, as well as the governor’s mansion.[63]  The Chicago Daily Tribune subsequently published an article on May 20, 1925 stating William R. Dawes, President of the Chicago Association of Commerce, had written letters to every member of the Illinois State Senate asking them to vote against Sneed’s bill.[64]  Whatever his merits as a leader of the C.A.C., William R. Dawes was an excellent choice as representative of the organization in the circles of power in Chicago and Springfield as he was a cousin of the banker and utilities magnet General Charles Gates Dawes, [65] who was then Vice President of the United States. [66]

It is not unreasonable to ask what kinds of problems and complications the adoption of D.S.T. by Chicago caused Chicagoans, suburbanites, and people visiting Chicagoland. In 1923, the Tribune notified readers that when the city resumed observance of D.S.T. on April 29th suburban commuter trains, as well as trains headed to Joliet, Peoria, and Des Moines, Iowa would run on Central Standard Time.[67]  Two railroad companies, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad and the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad, announced they would run on Daylight Saving Time, while seven others announced they would run on Central Standard Time with earlier trains.[68] The Illinois Central announced a mix of both, with D.S.T. observed on suburban trains in Illinois, but C.S.T. observed with earlier-running trains for the Hegewisch stop in Chicago, as well as the Indiana communities of Gary, Michigan City, Hammond, and South Bend.[69]

In 1926, when Alderman Sheldon W. Govier moved to repeal Chicago’s D.S.T. law, he had the support of Edward N. Nockles of the Chicago Federation of Labor, who said his organization was “bitterly opposed to daylight saving.”[70]  Alderman Thomas J. Bowler, who advocated leaving the law in force, had the backing of Cornelius Lynd of the Chicago Association of Commerce, who said a “poll of eleven large manufacturers in Chicago…showed a decided majority for the measure.”[71]  Despite Chicago Federation of Labor President John Fitzpatrick and John Carrol of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers testifying against the law, the city council voted unanimously to keep it. [72]  Most of Chicago’s suburbs and satellite cities accepted D.S.T. in 1926, except for Waukegan, Aurora, Elgin, St. Charles, and Geneva.[73]

Ultimately, timekeeping at Chicago’s second world’s fair, A Century of Progress International Exposition (1933-34) required the cooperation of the Elgin National Watch Company and IBM’s International Time Recording Division.  The Elgin Observatory sent time signals to six time-balls and the I.B.M. pavilion on the fairgrounds.[74]  Timekeeping machines I.B.M. furnished A Century of Progress Corporation included two master clocks in the I.B.M. pavilion, which sent out time signals once each minute; 200 slave clocks (called “secondary clocks” by I.B.M.); fifty attendance recorders stamping the punch-in times of 5,000 employees; electroprint time stamps for handling correspondence; and job time records to log how long repair work took.[75]

For the International Time Recording Division, the highlight of the I.B.M. exhibit was the World Clock at the entrance of the exhibit showing Chicago Daylight Saving Time on a light board and a rotating dial showing “Standard Time the World Over.”  The names of cities and points of interest across the globe were arrayed in an outer disc.  Numbers on the inner disc would line up the hour at hand in a given time zone with a representative polity or the International Date Line.   Some of I.B.M.’s timekeepers used by A Century of Progress Corporation were added to the Elgin National Watch Company’s exhibition at the Museum of Science and Industry’s original Time exhibit.[76]

The bizarre case of Chicago attempting to move into the Eastern Standard Time Zone in 1936 had been analyzed by Dr. Walter Nugent, Professor Emeritus of History at the University of Notre Dame, and summarized by the writer Michael Downing in Spring Forward: The Annual Madness of Daylight Saving Time.  On October 30, 1935, the City Council voted to accept a committee’s report in favor of Chicago adopting Eastern Standard Time, “along with several supportive petitions from private citizens and the Board of Education.” [77]  The city’s lawyer, Corporation Counsel Barnet Hodes, informed the city legislature that a referendum on the subject could only be conducted after a petition signed by 25% of the city’s registered voters had been submitted.[78] After voting forty-two to five against holding a referendum, on November 4, 1935 the City Council of Chicago voted to adopt Eastern Standard Time starting on March 1, 1936.[79]  In December of ’35, they voted unanimously to petition the I.C.C. to move the city into the E.S.T. zone for the purposes of railway traffic even though it was acknowledged the western frontier of the Eastern Standard Time Zone ran along Detroit, Toledo, and Cincinnati.[80]

On March 1, 1936, the new plan went into effect.  Downing writes, “The railroads serving metropolitan Chicago refused to accept this proposition, but most suburban communities did.”[81] In mid-March, Mayor Edward Joseph Kelly (1876-1950), told the city council that its “power to set the city’s clocks ‘cannot be questioned,’” and the city had been effectively running on Eastern Standard Time for part of the year for the past fifteen years, but the beginning of E.S.T. observance in the city had occurred in his absence and upon his return to the city he had become aware of opposition to the new law, and the city council unanimously adopted his recommendation to hold a referendum on the matter.[82]  According to Downing, in April of ’36, Chicago’s Stock Exchange and Board of Trade set their clocks forward an additional hour to be on the same hour as stockbrokers in New York City, then observing D.S.T.[83]

On April 21, 1936, the Interstate Commerce Commission reviewed Chicago’s petition, along with that of another polity that wanted to move from Central to Eastern Time zones.[84]   The state government of Michigan desired the federal government’s acceptance of a 1931 state law moving the state’s Lower Peninsula to Eastern Standard Time.[85] The I.C.C. ruled in Michigan’s favor and further shifted the western frontier of the Eastern Standard Time zone to Ohio’s border with Indiana.[86]  As Professor Nugent explains in his essay “Why Are the U.S. Time Zones Where They Are?” the meridian line upon which Central Standard Time is based is the line of longitude 900 west of Greenwich, and Chicago’s meridian is roughly 880 west of Greenwich leading the ICC to rule “Chicago’s proximity to ‘the governing meridian for the Central zone,’ as established by Congress in 1918, renders it ‘beyond our power’ to countermand.”[87]

There was widespread opposition to Chicago moving to Eastern Standard Time from Chicago’s livestock and grain exchanges; the towns of Harvey, Rockford, Elgin, Aurora, East St. Louis, Rock Island, Danville, Moline, and Champaign; the state legislatures of Illinois and Wisconsin; “labor unions and labor federations of Illinois and Wisconsin”; and “farmers and farm associations of Illinois, Wisconsin, and Indiana.”[88] Downing quotes a Washington Post editorial on the I.C.C.’s ruling.  “The effect of [Chicago’s] daylight-saving ordinance upon local train schedules and upon the commercial activities of nearby farm areas is confusing enough.”[89]

After the I.C.C. had already made its decision, voters were given the choice in Chicago of voting for reverting to Central Standard Time without Daylight Saving Time, Eastern Standard Time, or C.S.T. with D.S.T., thanks to the Chicago Federation of Labor and Democratic Party having gotten 425,000 people to sign a petition for a referendum.[90]  Voters favored the Central Standard Time with Daylight Saving Time by a margin of two to one, and on November 5, 1936 the city council voted unanimously to repeal the Eastern Standard Time law.[91]

Conclusion

      The Chicago Resistance Myth may have developed because people, both contemporaries living in New York City, and later generations living everywhere, wish Chicago had resisted the adoption of Railway Standard Time.  Few people resisted the implementation of Standard Time deep in the interior of time zones, such as in Chicago, but people strongly resisted implementation in places on or near the boundaries between zones, such as Detroit and Bangor, whereas resistance to Daylight Saving Time was so fierce throughout the country that the federal government twice had to repeal laws putting Daylight Saving Time into effect.  It may be that people living in the 20th Century projected their resentment of Daylight Saving Time onto their ancestors, assuming that resistance to Standard Time had been as fierce and widespread as resistance to Daylight Saving Time has been.

It is evident that during the previous time conflict many people who objected to Standard Time were under the impression that their communities had been observing Local Solar Time, when most communities had in fact been observing Local Mean Time for approximately a century.  In the United States and Canada the impetus for time standardization had come from railroads, as with the British Isles, but with the significant difference that the North American railroads were acting to avoid government regulation.  In both the British Isles and the United States, resistance had come from railroads themselves that, for various reasons, refused to be parties to the larger railway industry’s imposition of Railway Time.  Further, in the United States governments had been stirred into taking an interest in revisiting the concept of civil time by the nascent time-selling industry, which could take advantage of the railways heightening clock consciousness.  In both cases, the legislatures of the central governments had been slow to adopt Standard Time, and in both cases what little resistance to Standard Time was offered came largely from sectors within the executive and judicial branches.  One humorous myth about the transition that was carried by several newspapers in 1883 and carried into the modern era by Louis Wolfe in “How W.F. Allen Put America on Standard Time” was that Attorney-General Brewster missed a train because he refused to accept the change, but O’Malley exposed this story as apocryphal.[92]

Standard Time plaqueFigure 1 This plaque commemorates the place of the Grand Pacific Hotel in the Chicago Loop as the setting for the General Time Convention in October of 1883.  This historical marker is remarkable for its general accuracy.  It was passing this plaque every day on my way to work that made me interested in Standard Time.

End Notes

[1] This is an adaptation of a paper I presented at the Setting Standards Session on Friday, October 19, A.D. 2007, in Springfield, Illinois during the 2007 Illinois History Conference  (9th Annual Conference on Illinois History).

[2] To make Sir Sandford Fleming’s concept of Universal Time more palatable to the community of nations and seemingly less chauvinistic, the phrase Greenwich Mean Time (G.M.T.) was replaced with Universal Time (U.T.) in 1928. As an observation of the passage of the so-called “fixed stars” over a meridian (as the movement appears from the surface of the Earth) will give one a means of measuring the time it takes for the Earth to rotate that is more regular than an observation of the sun passing over the same meridian, Universal Time is based on the former rather than the latter. [The old RGO buildings in Greenwich have been converted into the National Maritime Museum.] The difference between Coordinated Universal Time (U.T.C.) and Greenwich Mean Sidereal Time (G.M.S.T.) is so slight most people do not notice the difference. To further complicate matters, U.T.C. is often referred to as G.M.T. by research scientists, academics, and clockmakers who know better in order to accommodate the masses who took no notice of the change. The duty of setting the world time standard has been taken over by the International Earth Rotation Service (I.E.R.S.) at the Paris Observatory, which coordinates thirty-eight laboratories with atomic clocks all over the world. It began operations on 1 January 1, 1988. It was renamed the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service in 2003, but continues to be known by the acronym I.E.R.S.  The Bureau of the International Earth Rotation Service (also known as the IERS Earth Orientation Center) is located at the Paris Observatory (“l’Observatoire de Paris”), which has the status of a university.  [See “Administration of the Paris Observatory.”(http://www.obspm.fr/admin/info.en.shtml) Accessed 12/22/04.] The IERS Product Center (also known as the IERS Rapid Service/Prediction Center) is located at the U.S. Naval Observatory (U.S.N.O.). The IERS Earth Orientation Center “is responsible for monitoring of long-term earth orientation parameters [EOPs], publications for time dissemination and leap second announcements.” [See “IERS Orientation Center” (http://www.iers.org/iers/pc/eop/) Accessed 12/22/04.]

[3] Derek Howse. Greenwich Time: And the Longitude. Philip Wilson Publishers Ltd., and the National Maritime Museum in association with A.T. Kearney Ltd. (1997), pages 95 & 106

[4] Michael O’Malley, Keeping Watch: A History of American Time. New York: Viking (1990), p. 266

[5] Willet had estimated in 1906 that England could save two and a half million pounds per year (Howse, p. 167).

[6] David S. Landes, Revolution in Time: Clocks and the Making of the Modern World. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press (1983), p. 286

[7] Carlene E. Stephens. Inventing Standard Time. Washington, D.S.: National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution (1983), pages 17 & 23.

Mathewson points out in “The Face of Time is Becoming Wondrously Strange” that Dowd had submitted the 107-page pamphlet “A System of National Time for Railroads” to the Convention of Railroad Trunk Lines at the request of convention members, and that his plan was endorsed by Yale, West Point, and the New York State Astronomical Observatory (p.39).

[8] Bartky (2000), p. 78

In 1887, when the original University of Chicago suffered severe economic difficulties, the Chicago Astronomical Society moved the Dearborn Observatory organization to Northwestern University’s campus in Evanston.   The Richardsonian Romanesque limestone building designed by Cobb & Frost that houses the organization was a gift of James B. Hobbs, who was an officer of the CAS and a trustee of Northwestern University.  In 1939, the 2,000-ton building was moved 100 yards to make room for the Technological Institute.  After the stock market crash of 1929, the CAS was no longer able to support the Dearborn Observatory and in 1930 had relinquished title to Northwestern University with the proviso that the observatory be kept open to the public without cost. In 1955 the Chicago Astronomical Society merged with the Burnham Astronomical Society.  Today, the CAS holds meetings on the second Friday of every month in the Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum.  See “A Short History of the Chicago Astronomical Society” (http://www.chicagoastro.org/pages/history.html) and the CAS Web site home page (http://www.chicagoastro.org/) Accessed 10/16/07

See also Northwestern University’s “Evanston Campus Interactive Map” (http://aquavite.northwestern.edu/maps/buildinglookup.cgi?lookupfield=dearborn&x=0&y=0) Accessed 10/16/07

[9] Bartky (2000), pages 78 & 80

[10] Bartky (2000), pages 78-80, 95 & 96, 242 & 243

[11] Bartky (2000), p. 82

[12] Ibid

See also “A Short History of the Chicago Astronomical Society” (http://www.chicagoastro.org/pages/history.html) Accessed 10/16/07

[13] Bartky (2000), pages 79 & 82

Colbert and Shelburne Wesley Burnham shared supervision of the observatory between 1871 and 1879, when Professor George Washington Hough was appointed director. See “A Short History of the Chicago Astronomical Society” (http://www.chicagoastro.org/pages/history.html) Accessed 10/16/07

[14] Bartky (2000), p. 82

See also “A Short History of the Chicago Astronomical Society” (http://www.chicagoastro.org/pages/history.html) Accessed 10/16/07

[15] Blaise states that in the 1870s “Railroad accidents were daily events, an inevitability considering that trains on the same track might be employing different times.” See Clark Blaise. Time Lord: Sir Sandford Fleming and the Creation of Standard Time. New York: Pantheon Books (2000), p. 72

[16] Ian R. Bartky. Selling the True Time. Stanford University Press (2000) p.259

[17] O’Malley, p. 105

[18] Bartky (2000), p. 139

[19] Jon C. Mathewson, “‘The Face of Time is Becoming Wondrously Strange:’ Changing Views of Time and the History of Standard Time in the United States.” A thesis presented to the Faculty of the Graduate College of The University of Vermont (1989), p. 56

[20] While most railways sensibly informed employees at what time by the reckoning of Local Mean Time it would be noon in their time zones by the reckoning of Standard Railway Time and they should therefore set their watches back, employees of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad were told that any trains moving on the morning of Sunday, November 18th would “STAND STILL FOR EIGHTEEN MINUTES” before standard noon (O’Malley, p. 125).

[21] Bartky (2000), pages 141 & 142 and O’Malley, pages 120 & 121

China has had a single time zone since May 1, 1980, “Worldwide Daylight Saving Time.” http://webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/d.html p. 1)

[22] “The Change in Time.” The Daily Inter-Ocean. 18 November 1883, p. 13

[23] O’Malley, pages 96 & 97

[24]  One of those people, of course, would be the previously mentioned Admiral Schufeldt of the Naval Observatory.

[25] Bartky (2000), pages 144 & 260

[26] O’Malley, p.126

[27] In this paragraph, all Chicago Daily News citations are from “Accepting the Reform.” Chicago Daily News. 17 November 1883, p. 7

[28] The part about the railroad companies is true, though they agreed to implement the new time regime by the following Sunday, November 25th.

[29] “Standard Time.” The Chicago Tribune. 18 November 1883, p. 12

[30] See “The Daylight Saving Scheme.” The Times p. 7f 13 April 1916; “Through German Eyes: Daylight Saving: The New ‘Summer Time.’” The Times, p. 5f 6 May 1916; “Dutch Daylight Saving.” The Times, p. 6a 27 April 1916

[31] “Summer Time: A Week of Daylight Saving.”  The Times, p. 10b 29 May 1916

[32] Ibid

[33] Biographical information on Kimbark comes from his entry in the 1926 edition of Who’s Who in Chicago, p. 485

[34] Bartky (2007), p. 251

[35] Bartky (2007), pages 187 & 251

[36] Bartky (2007), p. 187

[37] Bartky (2007), p. 251

[38] Bartky (2007), p. 188

[39] Bartky (2007), pages 187 & 189

[40] Bartky (2007), pages 189-191

[41] Ibid

[42] Bartky (2007), p. 192

[43] Bartky (2007), p. 195

[44] Julie A. Satzik, the Assistant Research Archivist at the Archdiocese of Chicago’s Joseph Cardinal Bernadin Archives & Records Center, has e-mailed me a synopsis of a directive concerning time contained in a letter from the Chancellery of the Archdiocese to archdiocesan priests.

[45] Bartky (2007), p. 198

[46] Ibid

[47] Bartky (2007), pages 198 & 199

[48] “Daylight Saving for Cities,” Chicago Daily Tribune 20 June 1919, p. 8

[49] “See Dark Maze Ahead for City’s Daylight Saving,” Chicago Daily Tribune 5  October 1919, p. 14

[50] Ibid

[51] Ibid

[52] Ibid

[53] “The Crime of Resetting the Clock,” Chicago Daily Tribune 20 May 1923, p. 8

[54] Genevieve Forbes, “City Girds for Battle to Keep Extra Daylight,” Chicago Daily Tribune 2 June 1923, p. 1

[55] Ibid

[56] Ibid

[57] Ibid

[58] “Started as a Joke,” Chicago Daily Tribune 2 June 1923, p. 10

[59] Genevieve Forbes, “Business, Sport Join in Demand for Extra Hour,” Chicago Daily Tribune 3 June 1923, p. 3

[60] Ibid

[61] Ibid

[62] “Daylight Saving Foes Checked by Report to House,” Chicago Daily Tribune 15 June 1923, p. 1

[63] Parke Brown, “You May Have to Set Your Clock Back an Hour,” Chicago Daily Tribune 19 May 1925, p. 13

[64] “Keep Daylight Savings Time, Plea to Solons,” Chicago Daily Tribune 20 May 1925, p. 12

[65] Charles Gates Dawes was a civil engineer and lawyer who owned and/or controlled banks, utilities, and civic institutions with his younger brothers Rufus and Henry Dawes.   McKinley made him Comptroller of the Currency in 1898.  He founded the bank Central Illinois Trust Company in 1902 and volunteered in the A.E.F. during WWI, ending as a brigadier general.  In 1924, he was elected Vice President of the United States for Calvin Coolidge’s administration from 1925 to 1929.  In 1926, General Dawes won the Nobel Peace Prize for 1925 for his Dawes Plan restructuring Germany’s debt.  Dawes used his prize money to endow the Walter Hines Page School of International Relations.  He was Hoover’s Ambassador to London from 1929 to 1932.

[66]William Ruggles Dawes had been Secretary of the Dawes Business Block’s Lincoln Coal Company in Lincoln, Nebraska from 1890 to 1898, cashier of the Chicago Post Office from 1898 to 1902, cashier of the Central Trust Company of Illinois from 1902 to 1919, vice president of the Central Trust Company of Illinois from 1911 to at least 1931, president of the North Side Savings Bank from 1909 to 1920, and vice president of the Mechanics & Traders State Bank from 1912 to 1922, as well as a director of Market Traders State Bank and trustee of Rippon College. He was president of the Chicago Association of Commerce from 1924 to 1928.  See his entry in Who’s Who in Chicago – The Book of Chicagoans: A Biographical Dictionary of Leading Living Men and Women of the City of Chicago and Environs.  Edited by Albert Nelson Marquis. Chicago, Illinois: A.N. Marquis & Company (1931), p. 244

In the one-sentence obituary Time Magazine ran for his wife Margaret Booker Dawes on June 11, 1928, he was identified as “President William Ruggles Dawes of the Chicago Association of Commerce, cousin of U.S. Vice President Charles Gates Dawes.” (http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,881064,00.html) Accessed 09/26/2007

[67] “Rock Island Lines Daylight Saving Suburban Train Schedules,” Chicago Daily Tribune, 28 April 1923, p. 3

[68] “Daylight Saving Riddle at Hand,” Chicago Daily Tribune, 28 April 1923, p. 1

[69] Ibid

[70] “Summer Time Protest Leans Toward Fall,” Chicago Daily Tribune, 15 January 1926, p. 3

[71] Ibid

[72] “Daylight Saving Wins O.K. of Council Group: Railway Men Lead Fight Against Plan,” Chicago Daily Tribune, 20 January 1926, p. 1

See also “Aldermen are Unanimous for Daylight Saving,” Chicago Daily Tribune, 4 February 1926, p. 1

[73] “Chicago and Most Suburbs Save Daylight,” Chicago Daily Tribune, 25 April 1926, p. 1

[74] “You Really Must Take a Peek!” Elgin, Illinois: Elgin National Watch Company, p. 4

See also “Accurate Time,” International Business Machines Corporation, International Time Recording Division, p. 2 (outside)

[75] “Accurate Time,” International Business Machines Corporation, International Time Recording Division, p. 1 (inside)

[76] This is not to be confused with Time, the exhibit of the industrialist Seth Atwood’s comprehensive collection of clocks, watches, and other timekeepers that had formerly been housed in the National Time Museum in Rockford, Illinois.  Time was open at M.S.I. from 2001 to 2004.

[77] Nugent, , p. 18

[78] Nugent, pages 18 & 20

[79] Nugent, p. 18

[80] Ibid

[81] Michael Downing, Spring Forward: The Annual Madness of Daylight Saving Time. Washington, D.C.: Shoemaker & Hoard (2005), p. 92

[82] Nugent, p. 19

[83] Downing,, p. 92

[84] Nugent, pages 18 & 20

[85] Nugent, p. 20

[86] Nugent, pages 22 & 25

[87] Nugent, pages 17 & 20

[88] Nugent, p. 22

[89] Downing, p. 92

[90] Nugent, p. 23

[91] Nugent, p. 25

 

Bibliography of Primary & Secondary Sources

Bibliography of Primary Sources

Chicago Time Legislation

Journal of the Proceedings of the City Council: City of Chicago 

Proceedings of the City Council: City of Chicago Municipal Year 1883-84

“Unfinished Business” entry in the Journal of the Proceedings of the City Council 1920-1921

Letters, Pamphlets, and Speeches

Hoban, Edward F. Letter from the Chancellery of the Archdiocese of Chicago to archdiocesan priests (1918)

Willet, William.  “The Waste of Daylight.”

Newspaper Articles (Ordered Chronologically)

 “Standard Time.” Chicago Tribune 18 November 1883, p.12\

“The Milwaukee & St. Paul Bent on Bidding the Iowa Pool Good Evening.” Chicago Tribune 18 November 1883, p.12

“Standard Time.” Chicago Tribune 19 November 1883, p.1

“The New Time Standards.” New-York Daily Tribune 17 November 1883, p.1

“No Change at the Naval Observatory.” New-York Daily Tribune 17 November 1883, p.2

“Time Standards Changed.” New-York Daily Tribune 19 November 1883, p.2

“At the Harvard Observatory.” New-York Daily Tribune 19 November 1883, p.2

“The New Time in Chicago.” New York Times 18 November 1883, p.1

“Accepting the Reform.” Chicago Daily News

“The Change of Time in New York.” Chicago Daily News

“The Change in Time.” The Daily Inter Ocean 18 November 1883, p.13

“The time is out of joint. Oh! Cursed spite” in Bangor, ME, where the Mayor has gone and vetoed the new standard.” New England Farmer 24 November 1883, p. 2

“Attorney General Brewster has come to the conclusion that nothing short of an act of Congress could change the standard time in Washington, but after all, the change is an accomplished fact all over the country, except in Bangor, Me.” New England Farmer 24 November 1883, p. 2

“The Daylight Saving Scheme.” The Times p. 7f 13 April 1916

“Summer Time: A Week of Daylight Saving.”  The Times, p. 10b 29 May 1916

“Farmers and Summer Time.” The Times p. 5d 23 May 1916

“Illinois House Asks Repeal of Daylight Savings,” Chicago Daily Tribune 24 May 1919, p. 7

“Daylight Saving for Cities,” Chicago Daily Tribune 20 June 1919, p. 8

“Want Chicago to do Its Own Daylight Saving,” Chicago Daily Tribune 7 September 1919, p. 7

“See Dark Maze Ahead for City’s Daylight Saving,” Chicago Daily Tribune 5 October 1919, p. 14

Eckersall, Walter. “Downey, Malone Battle Tonight in Aurora Ring,” Chicago Daily Tribune, 13 June 1922, p. 18

“Daylight Saving Riddle at Hand,” Chicago Daily Tribune, 28 April 1923, p. 1

“Rock Island Lines Daylight Saving Suburban Train Schedules,” Chicago Daily Tribune, 28 April 1923, p. 3

Genevieve Forbes, “City Girds for Battle to Keep Extra Daylight,” Chicago Daily Tribune 2 June 1923, p. 1

“Started as a Joke,” Chicago Daily Tribune 2 June 1923, p. 10

Forbes, Genevieve. “Business, Sport Join in Demand for Extra Hour,” Chicago Daily Tribune 3 June 1923, p. 3

“Daylight Saving Foes Checked by Report to House,” Chicago Daily Tribune 15 June 1923, p. 1

Maxwell, Selby. “Savants Await Eclipse of Sun, Due Tomorrow,” Chicago Daily Tribune, 9 September 1923, p. 13

“The Crime of Resetting the Clock,” Chicago Daily Tribune 20 May 1923, p. 8

Brown, Parke. “You May Have to Set Your Clock Back an Hour,” Chicago Daily Tribune 19 May 1925, p. 13

“Keep Daylight Savings Time, Plea to Solons,” Chicago Daily Tribune 20 May 1925, p. 12

Daylight Saving Wins O.K. of Council Group: Railway Men Lead Fight Against Plan,” Chicago Daily Tribune, 20 January 1926, p. 1

“Aldermen are Unanimous for Daylight Saving,” Chicago Daily Tribune, 4 February 1926, p. 1

Trade Catalogs in the Museum of Science & Industry’s Institutional Archives

“You Really Must Take a Peek!” Elgin, Illinois: Elgin National Watch Company, p. 4

“Accurate Time,” International Business Machines Corporation, International Time Recording Division

Web Sites

“Administration of the Paris Observatory.”(http://www.obspm.fr/admin/info.en.shtml) Accessed 12/22/04.]

“IERS Orientation Center” (http://www.iers.org/iers/pc/eop/) Accessed 12/22/04.

Northwestern University’s “Evanston Campus Interactive Map” (http://aquavite.northwestern.edu/maps/buildinglookup.cgi?lookupfield=dearborn&x=0&y=0) Accessed 10/16/07

Time 11 June 1928 (http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,881064,00.html) Accessed 09/26/2007

 Bibliography of Secondary Sources

Aveni, Anthony F. Empires of Time: Calendars, Clocks, and Cultures. New York: Basic Books, 1989.

Barnett, Jo Ellen. Time’s Pendulum: The Quest to Capture Time – From Sundials to Atomic Clocks. New York: Plenum Trade, 1998.

Bartky, Ian R. “The First Time Balls.” JHA, xii (1981)

Bartky, Ian R. Selling True Time: Nineteenth-Century Timekeeping in America. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000.

Bartky, Ian R. One Time Fits All: The Campaign for Global Uniformity. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2007.

Blaise, Clark. Time Lord: Sir Standford Fleming and the Creation of Standard Time. New York: Pantheon Books, 2000.

Currey, Seymour. Chicago: Its History and Its Builders – A Century of Marvelous Growth, Volume IV.  Chicago, Illinois: The S.J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1912.

Downing, Michael. Spring Forward: The Annual Madness of Daylight Saving Time. Washington, D.C.: Shoemaker & Hoard, 2005.

Gallison, Peter. Einstein’s Clocks, Poincaré’s Maps: Empires of Time. New York City, New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2004

Howse, Derek. Greenwich Time and the Discovery of the Longitude. Oxford University Press, 1980.

Howse, Derek. Greenwich Time: And the Longitude. Philip Wilson Publishers Ltd., and the National Maritime Museum in association with A.T. Kearney Ltd.,1997.

Kern, Stephen. The Culture of Time and Space: 1880-1918.  Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1983.

Landes, David S. Revolution in Time: Clocks and the Making of the Modern World. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1983

Mathewson, Jon C. “‘The Face of Time is Becoming Wondrously Strange:’ Changing Views of Time and the History of Standard Time in the United States.” A thesis presented to the Faculty of the Graduate College of The University of Vermont, 1989.

Nugent, Walter. “Why Are U.S. Time Zones Where They Are?” For the Newberry Library Seminar on Technology, Politics, and Culture, January 26, 2001.

O’Malley, Michael. Keeping Watch: A History of American Time. New York: Viking, 1990.

Prerau, David.  Seize the Daylight: The Curious and Contentious Story of Daylight Saving Time.  New York, New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 2005.

Postman, Neil. Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology. New York: Random House, 1992.

Rifkin, Jeremy. Time Wars: The Primary Conflict in Human History. New York: Henry Holt & Company, 1987.

Standard Time in the United States: A History of Standard and Daylight Saving Time in the United States and an Analysis of the Related Laws. Washington, D.C.: Department of Transportation, Office of the Secretary, Office of Assistant General Counsel for Regulation, 1970.

Stephens, Carlene E. On Time: How America Has Learned to Live by the Clock. Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of American History, Behring Center. Singapore: Bulfinch Press, an imprint of Little, Brown, & Company, 2002

Who’s Who in Chicago – The Book of Chicagoans: A Biographical Dictionary of Leading Living Men and Women of the City of Chicago and Environs.  Edited by Albert Nelson Marquis. Chicago, Illinois: A.N. Marquis & Company, 1931

Who’s Who in Chicago – The Book of Chicagoans: A Biographical Dictionary of Leading Living Men and Women of the City of Chicago and Environs.  Edited by Albert Nelson Marquis. Chicago, Illinois: A.N. Marquis & Company, 1926

Wolfe, Louis. “How W. F. Allen Put America on Standard Time.” The American Legion Magazine, November 1975. Reprint National Railway Historical Society Bulletin Volume 48, Number 4.

Web Sites

“A Short History of the Chicago Astronomical Society” (http://www.chicagoastro.org/pages/history.html) and the CAS Web site home page (http://www.chicagoastro.org/) Accessed 10/16/07

Physics Laboratory of the National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST), U.S. Department of Commerce. “First There was Standard Time” in Daylight Savings Time a web exhibit at http://webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/d.html

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