“How Lincoln Park Zoo’s Marlin Perkins Became an International Celebrity” by S.M. O’Connor

 

In 2018, the Lincoln Park Zoo is celebrating the 150th anniversary of its foundation in 1868, which makes this an excellent time to review aspects of its history.  Ronald Marlin Perkins (1905-1986) was Director of the Lincoln Park Zoo from 1945 to 1962.  Lincoln Park Zoo was the second of three zoos at which he served as director, having already been Director of the Buffalo Zoological Gardens in Buffalo, New York and later being the Director of the Saint Louis Zoo in Saint Louis, Missouri.  Born in Carthage, Missouri on Tuesday, March 28, 1905 the youngest of three boys, he studied agriculture and zoology at the University of Missouri – Columbia, between 1924 and ’26, but after his sophomore year he left school in 1926 to start his first job in the field as a sweeper at the Saint Louis Zoological Park, where he was paid the princely sum of $3.75 per week.  He worked his way up to Curator of Reptiles within two years.  His interest in herpetology, specifically snakes, caused Director George Vierheller (1882-1966) to place him in charge of the zoo’s entire collection of six snakes two weeks after Perkins had started his job as a sweeper.  It helped that he donated his own collection of reptiles.  He developed new cages for the exhibit and it attracted crowds, which the Board of Directors had not expected.  Over the next eleven years, he added to the reptile collection until it consisted of 500 animals.  In September of 1938, he went to the Buffalo Zoological Gardens as curator at a time when the Works Progress Administration had just redeveloped the physical plant.  He opened the Reptile House in 1942 with a collection of 400 specimens.  In May of 1944, Perkins, who would soon become famous because of a Time Magazine cover story, left his position as Director of the Buffalo Zoological Gardens to become Assistant Director of the Lincoln Park Zoo.  George Donahue, General Superintendent of the Chicago Park District, asked him to become assistant director of the zoo on the understanding he was being groomed to replace Floyd Young, who planned to retire soon.[1]  As Assistant Director of the Lincoln Park Zoo, he would make more than double what he made as Director at the Buffalo Zoo, and he would receive a raise once he succeeded Young.[2]  Perkins had many accomplishments at the Lincoln Park Zoo.

Before Perkins became director of the zoo, the staff was composed of the director, his secretary, the foreman, and keepers, but after foreman Richard Auer retired, Perkins reorganized the zoo to introduce the curatorial system.[3]  He made George Irving first curator of birds and then general curator. [4]  Lear Grimmer began as a curator at the zoo, but eventually became the assistant director.[5]  Perkins went through the civil service department of the Chicago Park District to create the position of zoologist. [6]  Fred Myers, who had worked for Perkins at the zoo in Buffalo, was brought to the Lincoln Park Zoo as a keeper, and eventually became a zoologist.[7]

He founded the first year-round children’s zoo in 1959. [8]  Perkins and the zoo benefited from a having a certain keeper on staff named Lyman Carpenter, who was imaginative and industrious, “an artist and craftsman who could build almost anything.” [9]  He had a rapport with both people and animals, with the result that there were people who visited the zoo just to see him. [10]  It was his idea to create a children’s zoo, and he built it himself out of plywood.[11]  Its popularity led to the design and construction of a more permanent children’s zoo.[12]

The zoo nursery was also Carpenter’s idea. [13]  Previously, baby animals were taken home at night to be cared for by their keepers, but Carpenter thought it would be better to bottle feed the baby animals at the zoo. [14]  Perkins thought the idea was so successful in practice the public should be able to see some of what went on in the zoo nursery. [15]  Accordingly, a zoo nursery was built in the lion house with glass windows and glass-front cages. [16]  The animal nursery in the lion house drew enough attention that a larger nursery was erected as an adjunct to the children’s zoo, and as soon as they were grew sufficiently large, the baby animals moved from the nursery to the children’s zoo. [17]

Perkins became frustrated with the failure of most zoo visitors he observed to read more than the common names of animals from exhibit labels at the Lincoln Park Zoo. [18]  These were no different from the exhibit labels he had personally written for the zoos in St. Louis and Buffalo, consisting of the animal’s common name, scientific name, habitat and range, and a forty-to-fifty word condensed natural history of the animal, so he gave Myers the task of writing shorter labels.[19]  Perkins thought they should follow the example of Time Magazine and condense as much as possible. [20]  The solution Myers came up with was the tabulated sign with the animal’s common name and other popular names, gestation period, size, weight, range and natural habitat, voice, life expectancy, scientific name, number of young per litter, and uses for mankind.[21]   Large animals like elephants were represented by large labels that mentioned the exploits of individuals.[22]  The label for Bushman mentioned that he had played football with keeper Eddie Robinson. [23]

In the 1950s, he fostered the establishment of the Lincoln Park Zoological Society.[24]  Finally, in 1964, the successor to Perkins, Dr. Lester E. Fisher, founded the Farm-in-the Zoo, a brainchild of Perkins to give city folks a taste of rural life.[25]  

pg3fFigure 1 Credit: Photo courtesy of Lincoln Park Zoo Caption: The Farm-in-the-Zoo was built in 1964 by Dr. Lester E. Fisher, Director of the Lincoln Park Zoo, but it was the brainchild of his predecessor, Marlin Perkins, who convinced the Chicago Park District it was worthwhile to finance construction of the exhibit to give city folks a taste of rural life.

Perkins began his ascendancy as the most famous American zoo director with unpaid work for the experimental TV station WBKB between 1945 and ’47, which he viewed as free publicity for the zoo.[26]  He stopped out of frustration because the station was willing to send a bus to the Museum of Science and Industry to film, but required him to bring animals to the station.[27]  In 1947, Perkins was profiled as part of a TIME story on American zoos for which artist Boris Artzybasheff (1899-1965) drew his likeness for the cover.[28]  Thereafter the Chicago Sun-Times asked Perkins to write a syndicated weekly column about animals, which he did for about eighteen months.[29]  Through WBKB, Perkins had met U.S. Navy veterans Reinald Werrenrath, Jr. and Don Meier, and in 1949 Werrenrath came to the zoo to ask Perkins to appear on television at the zoo for the new NBC TV station in Chicago.[30]  A coaxial cable between Chicago and New York City had been installed, and Perkins showed off Bushman and other primates to demonstrate for the executives in New York the Chicago station’s ability to develop programming.[31]  Afterward, Werrenrath proposed that they make a weekly show for the Chicago market, and Perkins agreed, again with the idea in mind this would bring free publicity for Lincoln Park Zoo.[32]

Originally, the show was called Visit to the Lincoln Park Zoo.[33]   With outbreak of the Korean War, Werrenrath returned to active duty in the U.S. Navy, and Meir became producer-director of the show.[34]  Perkins assumed the show would go off the air when schoolchildren returned to school, but in October it became apparent the show would remain on the air through the winter of 1949-1950, and Perkins suggested the show be renamed Zooparade. [35]   He was surprised to learn the following spring that Jewel Food Stores had purchased the program.  As it was now a commercial show, he suggested he and other Lincoln Park Zoo employees who worked on the show should be paid, and then signed a contract with WMAQ.[36]   Within a matter of weeks, it became a network program carried by twenty-eight stations and Quaker Oats Company became the national sponsor of the show to promote its Ken-L Ration dog food.[37]   However, since Jewel owned the show in Chicago, two episodes were made every Sunday for the better part of a year, one for N.B.C. and one for WMAQ.[38]

For Zooparade, animal keepers would bring animals to the reptile house, where episodes were filmed, cared for them there, and returned them to their cages. [39]  Consequently, the animals became accustomed to being touched by people (and being picked up in the case of small animals), and Perkins came to think he “had tried to develop a training program to teach keepers how to handle and move animals,” he could not have “found a better medium than Zooparade.”[40]  NBC paid Irving, Grimmer, and the keepers as well as Perkins for their work on the show. [41]  As Perkins recounted, the show was “good for Lincoln Park Zoo in several ways.” [42]  Each Monday, Perkins would hold a conference with Irving or Grimmer, Don Meier, and WMAQ chief technician Harry Mahl to outline the next Sunday’s episode. [43]  Meier would arrange for Marshall Head or another WMAQ cameraman to shoot film that would later be inserted into live episodes of the program. [44]

A terrible accident befell Perkins during the rehearsal for the broadcast on April 1, 1951. His secretary had Sundays off, so Perkins had to answer all the April Fool’s Day calls himself, with a little help from Halbut, who enjoyed giving flip answers to people who had been given the zoo’s phone number with the message to call Mr. Wolf or Al E. Gator, etc., with the result they had less than the usual amount of rehearsal time, on a day when Perkins planned to demonstrate snake venom extraction.[45]  Twenty minutes before the broadcast was to begin, the timber rattlesnake turned in his grasp and bit him. [46]    Chicago Park District photographer Gates Priest recorded the action as Perkins opened the fang puncture with a knife and sucked out the venom, followed by additional incisions and suction with suction cups that were at hand for just such a purpose. [47]  Then Perkins was taken to the hospital and stayed there for three weeks.[48]  Lear Grimmer had to fill in for Perkins, performing the venom extraction on air and explain the mishap to the TV audience.[49]  The episode also opened without the title card tied to Judy the elephant’s cage because she had eaten it.[50]  For years thereafter, Perkins met people who insisted they had seen him bitten on camera, and after a while he stopped correcting them.[51] A much more pleasant surprise occurred during another rehearsal when Meir briefed Perkins and Hurlbut that the episode would end with the presentation of the first award for Zooparade – from the magazine TV Forecast (later renamed TV Guide).[52]

In 1955, the insurance company Mutual of Omaha replaced Ken-L Ration as sponsor of Zooparade.[53]  This was the beginning of a long association for the company with Perkins and Meier.  Given the success of the Zoorparade episodes filmed on location in Africa, Meier and Perkins were able to convince NBC to back an expedition to the upper Amazon River, and the Chicago Park District approved.[54]  The Amazonian expedition lasted for two months, but when they returned home they found out NBC had cancelled Zoo Parade.[55] Perkins and Meier returned to their jobs at the Lincoln Park Zoo and WMAQ, and developed the format for a new TV show Wild Kingdom, after which Meier resigned from his job at NBC, founded Don Meier productions, and found capital to film a pilot episode.[56]  Jim Fowler, a young falconer whom Perkins and Meier had met in Florida at John Hamlet’s bird-of-prey exhibit, paid a call on Perkins at the Lincoln Park Zoo and recounted a recent expedition to South Africa to collect raptors.[57]  This led to Fowler being filmed with his Lanner falcon and Marshall eagle to demonstrate how a falconer trains raptors for the first episode of Wild Kingdom, though it would not air until January of 1963.[58]  Fowler would later leave Wild Kingdom in 1968, but returned as co-host in the 1982-83 season.[59]

In 1960, Perkins accompanied famed mountain climber Sir Edmund Hilary (1919-2008) on an expedition financed by World Book Encyclopedia (published by Field Enterprises) to the Himalayas to search for the Abominable Snowman and study high altitude acclimatization of mountaineers.[60]  A group of about fifty scientists who convened at The Field Museum of Natural History confirmed the initial findings that the supposed yeti skins, scalps, and claws the expedition group had purchased or borrowed were actually animals known to science such as the Himalayan blue bear (Ursus arctos pruinosis).[61]

In 1962, Perkins was a guest speaker at a banquet for the Zoological Society of Omaha, which had recently received a large bequest, and at that event had a conversation with Mutual of Omaha’s Chairman of the Board V. J. Skutt (1902-1993), which resulted in the insurance company becoming the sponsor of Wild Kingdom and Perkins becoming a spokesman for the firm.[62]  After Don Meier showed the pilot episode to Meade Chamberlin, Mutual of Omaha’s Vice President of Advertising, Mutual of Omaha entered into contracts with Don Meier Productions and N.B.C. to air thirteen episodes of the renamed Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom on Sunday nights, and Meier entered into a contract with the Chicago Park District for rights to use Lincoln Park Zoo animals and Perkins.[63]  Some of the footage in those first thirteen episodes of Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom was unaired footage from the 1957 Zooparade expedition to the Amazon that N.B.C. had sponsored. [64]   Perkins held the post of Director of the Lincoln Park Zoo until September of 1962, when he left to replace his mentor George Vierheller as Director of the St. Louis Zoo, where he had started as a sweeper.[65]  Perkins was only the second full-time director of the Saint Louis Zoo.  He remained there until he retired in 1970, and a Don Meier Productions unit would film Perkins in St. Louis, but he continued to come back to Chicago to record narration for Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom, at Don Meier Productions.[66]

In 1978, the Association of Zoos & Aquariums introduced the R. Marlin Perkins Award for Professional Excellence.  There is only one recipient at a time and the A.Z.A. does not give it out every year.

In 1991, the Saint Louis Zoo established the Marlin Perkins Society to honor people who annually donated $1,000 or more to the Saint Louis Zoo.  Originally, it had forty-eight members.  Today, it has over 1,100 members and it has raised over $21,000,000 for the Saint Louis Zoo.

Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom premiered on N.B.C. on Sunday, January 6, 1963, which would have been the Feast of Epiphany.  It was a network program until 1971, when it became a syndicated program.  Over 200 television stations carried it in syndication in forty countries.  From 1963 to 1985, Perkins would serve as host of Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom (1963-1985).  Perkins was often helped by field correspondents.  Two of these field correspondents who became co-hosts were the aforementioned Jim Fowler and Peter Gros.

In 1933, he wed Elise More.  Four years later, their only child, Suzanne Perkins, was born.  This first marriage ended in divorce in 1953.  Seven years later, Perkins wed his second wife, Carol Morse Costworth (nee Morse), who had divorced her first husband, steel salesman John Cotsworth, in 1959.[67]  Perkins confessed his love for her after she divorced Mr. Cotsworth.  Carol More Perkins was a former kindergarten teacher and housewife but as his traveling companion and helpmate she traveled around the world, aided in the organization of the Symposia on Endangered and Threatened Species in Washington, D.C. in 1974 and 1977.[68]  She headed thirty-two safaris in Africa, two safaris in Australia, and three safaris in South Asia.  Marlin & Carol Perkins founded the Endangered Wolf Center in Eureka, Missouri on sixty-three acres of land provided by Washington University.[69]  The Endangered Wolf Center breeds Mexican gray wolves and red wolves.[70]  Carol More Perkins was an authoress of four books.[71]

Perkins died of lymph system cancer at his home in Saint Louis on Saturday, June 14, 1986 at the age of eighty-one. He was survived by wife Carol; daughter Suzanne Perkins, then a resident of Berkley, California; stepdaughter Alice Goltra, then a resident of Lake Forest, Illinois; stepdaughter Marguerite Sorum, then a resident of Washington, D.C.; stepson Fred Cotsowrth, then a resident of St. Louis; and eight grandchildren.[72]  A private funeral was held at The Church of St. Michael and St. George, an Episcopalian parish church in Clayton, Missouri.[73] She died on Saturday, October 20, 2012 at the age of ninety-five.[74]

 

1969studioFigure 2 Credit: Photo courtesy of Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom® Caption: This is a publicity photo taken in the studio in 1969 for the television series Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom (1963-1985) of Stan Brock (left),  Marlin Perkins (center), and Jim Fowler (right) with a chimpanzee.

 

fowlermarlinFigure 3 Credit: Photo courtesy of Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom® Caption: This is a publicity photo for the television series Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom (right) of Jim Fowler (left) and Marlin Perkins (1905-1986), holding a lizard.

 

fowlermarlinsnakeFigure 4 Credit: Photo courtesy of Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom® Caption: This is a publicity photo for the television series Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom (1963-1985) of Jim Fowler (left), holding a snake, and Marlin Perkins (right).

Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom remained in syndication through the mid-1990s.  The original show earned forty-one awards, including four Emmys.

In 2001, Mutual of Omaha made the legacy of the show a key component of a brand revitalization effort.  From 2001 to 2005, the company held an annual Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom Kids’ Summit.  The challenge for children was to write essays in which they would suggest ways to save endangered or threatened animals.  One winner from each state would attend the Wild Kingdom Kids’ Summit.

In 2002, Mutual of Omaha brought Wild Kingdom back to television with a series of new one-hour-long specials on the Animal Planet cable network.  This was the revival series Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom (2002-2011).  In 2010, Mutual of Omaha setup the Wild Kingdom YouTube Channel, https://www.youtube.com/user/wildkingdomtv to show clips of the original series.  In December of 2012, Mutual of Omaha began to add clips from the original series to the Wild Kingdom YouTube Channel, as well as new short videos with Jim Fowler and Peter Gros. In 2013, the company added videos with former Wild Kingdom host Stan Brock.  To celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom, in 2013, Mutual of Omaha produced new logos and the iPhone app My Wild Kingdom.

fowlergrosmonkeyFigure 5 Credit: Photo courtesy of Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom® Caption: This is a publicity photo for the television series Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom (1963-1985) of Jim Fowler (left), holding a chimpanzee, and Peter Gros (right).

fowlergros2012-2

Figure 6 Credit: Photo courtesy of Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom® Caption: This is a publicity photo for Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom of Jim Fowler (left) and Peter Gros (right) that Mutual of Omaha had taken in 2013 to help celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the television series Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom.

 

On Wednesday, May 29, 2013, Mutual of Omaha announced there were three finalists in a contest to determine who would be named Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom’s Wild Guide.  The winner of this title would receive $10,000 and host new webisodes: wildlife educator Stephanie Arne of Honolulu, Hawaii; backpacker tour-guide Reggie Busse of Omaha, Nebraska; and aspiring documentary filmmaker Thiago Silva of El Paso, Texas.  They would fly to Omaha to be interviewed and have on-screen tests.

wild-guide-finalist-stephanieFigure 7 Credit: Photo courtesy of Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom® Caption: wildlife educator Stephanie Arne of Honolulu, Hawaii was one of three finalists in a 2013 contest to find a Wild Guide (host or hostess) for a new webseries continuation of Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom.

wild-guide-finalist-reggieFigure 8 Credit: Photo courtesy of Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom® Caption: backpacker tour-guide Reggie Busse of Omaha, Nebraska was one of three finalists in a 2013 contest to find a Wild Guide (host or hostess) for a new webseries continuation of Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom.

wild-guide-finalist-thiago

Figure 9 Credit: Photo courtesy of Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom® Caption: aspiring documentary filmmaker Thiago Silva of El Paso, Texas was one of three finalists in a 2013 contest to find a Wild Guide (host or hostess) for a new webseries continuation of Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom.

 

Subsequently, Mutual of Omaha announced Stephanie Arne was the new Wild Guide and would host the new web series, the first episode of which would be “Reef Madness” posted on the Web site of Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom®, http://www.wildkingdom.com, and the Wild Kingdom YouTube Channel, https://www.youtube.com/user/wildkingdomtv, on Sunday, November 3, 2013.  Stephanie Arne is from South Dakota.  Her career started with an internship at the Education and Mammal Department of Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium.  This segued into a full-time job as Education Outreach Coordinator.  She created Homeschool programs and Zoo to You Boxes.  Subsequently, she worked as an educational contractor at American military bases in Key West, Florida; Iwakuni, Japan; and Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.  This led to a job as a wildlife educator at the Honolulu Zoological Society. Ms. Arne then worked in San Diego for Sea World and the San Diego Zoo.

wk-stephanie-ca-portrait

Figure 10 Credit: Photo courtesy of Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom® Caption: In 2013, Mutual of Omaha announced wildlife educator Stephanie Arne of Honolulu, Hawaii had won the contest to become Wild Guide for a new webseries continuation of Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom.

wk-stephanie-reef-prod-photoFigure 11 Credit: Photo courtesy of Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom® Caption: This is Stephanie Arne of Honolulu, Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom’s Wild Guide, filming a webisode.

Fans of Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom can watch full episodes, as well as video clips from the original series, and the new webisodes with Stephanie Arne, on on WildKingdom.com and the Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom YouTube Channel.  There is also a WLD Kingdom TV Facebook page.  In addition, there are other Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom social media accounts: Twitter (https://twitter.com/wildkingdom), Tumblr (http://wildkingdom.tumblr/com), Instagram (http://instagram.com/wildkingdomtv), Pinterest (http://www.pinterest.com/wildkingdomtv/), and Google+ (https://pus.google.com/+wildkingdom).

 

[1] Marlin Perkins, My Wild Kingdom: An Autobiography. New York, NY: E.P. Dutton (1982), pages 87 and 88

[2] Perkins, p. 88

[3] Perkins, p. 110

[4] Perkins, pages 110 & 111

[5] Perkins, p. 116

[6] Perkins, p. 111

[7] Perkins, p. 111

[8] Dennis A. Merritt, Jr., “Lincoln Park Zoo,” The Encyclopedia of Chicago. Ed. James R. Grossman, Ann Durkin Keating, and Janice L. Reiff. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press (2004), p. 479

[9] Perkins, p. 109

[10] Perkins, p. 109

[11] Perkins, p. 109

[12] Perkins, pages 109 and 110

[13] Perkins, p. 110

[14] Perkins, p. 110

[15] Perkins, p. 110

[16] Perkins, p. 110

[17] Perkins, p. 110

[18] Perkins, p. 111

[19] Perkins, p. 111

[20] Perkins, p. 111

[21] Perkin s, p. 112

[22] Perkins, p. 112

[23] Perkins, p. 112

[24] Merritt, p. 479

[25] Merritt, p. 479

[26] Perkins, p. 113

[27] Perkins, p. 114

[28] Perkins, p. 91

[29] Perkins, p. 92

[30] Perkins, p. 114

[31] Perkins, pages 114 and 115

[32] Perkins, p. 115

[33] Perkins, p. 115

[34] Perkins, p. 115

[35] Perkins, p. 115

[36] Perkins, p. 115

[37] Perkins, p. 115

[38] Perkins, p. 115

[39] Perkins, p. 116

[40] Perkins, p. 116

Note that he placed the name of the show in quotation marks, while I have underlined it.

[41] Perkins, p. 116

[42] Perkins, p. 116

[43] Perkins, p. 116

[44] Perkins, p. 116

[45] Perkins, p. 118

[46] Perkins, p. 118

[47] Perkins, p. 118

[48] Perkins, p. 119

[49] Perkins, p. 119

[50] Perkins, p. 119

[51] Perkins, p. 119

[52] Perkins, p. 121

[53] Perkins, p. 130

[54] Perkins, p. 130

[55] Perkins, pages 134 and 136

[56] Perkins, p. 136

[57] Perkins, p. 136

[58] Perkins, pages 136, 137, and 156

[59] Perkins, p. 197

[60] Perkins, p. 137

[61] Perkins, pages 143, 144, and 155

[62] Perkins, pages 153 and 154

See also “V.J. Skutt, Longtime Chairman of Mutual of Omaha Dies at 90,” The New York Times, 25 February, 1993 (http://www.nytimes.com/1993/02/25/us/v-j-skutt-longtime-chairman-of-mutual-of-omaha-dies-at-90.html) Accessed 12/25/17

[63] Perkins, p. 154

[64] Perkins, pages 130, 136, and 154

[65] Perkins, pages 32, 78, and 155

[66] Perkins, pages 156, 182, and 183

[67] Michael D. Sorkin, “Carol Perkins dies; conservationist, author and widow of famed Marlin Perkins,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 25 October, 2012 (http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/obituaries/carol-perkins-dies-conservationist-author-and-widow-of-famed-marlin/article_06bbd7ca-c456-5576-b003-9238eead7041.html) Accessed 01/04/18

[68] Ibid

[69] Ibid

[70] Ibid

[71] Ibid

[72] Robert O. Borstin, “Marlin Perkins, Zoologist and TV Host, Dies,” The New York Times, 16 June, 1986

[73] United Press International, “Marlin Perkins of ‘Wild Kingdom’ Dies at 81,” Los Angeles Times, 15 June, 1986 (http://articles.latimes.com/1986-06-15/local/me-11335_1_marlin-perkins) Accessed 01/04/18

[74] Sorkin, “Carol Perkins dies”

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